Wikimedia Hackathon Zürich 2014

#Wikimedia #Hackathon #Zürich2014 #Cookednews

The next Wikimedia annual development community meet-up — the Wikimedia Hackathon — will be held in Zürich,Switzerland in 2014 from May 911.

It is planned to be a long weekend filled with hacking anything related to MediaWiki or one of the Wikimedia projects (and sometimes other things, too). The Hackathon is completely open; we welcome both seasoned and new developers, as well as people working on MediaWiki, tools, pywikibot, gadgets, extensions, templates, etc.

Previous hackathon events were held all over the world, such as in Amsterdam, Netherlands (2013)Pune, India (2012),San Francisco, USA (2012)Mumbai, India (2011)Brighton, UK (2011)New Orleans, USA (2011)Berlin, Germany (2011) and Washington DC, USA (2010).

Venue and Accommodation

The venue and accommodation will be both at the same site: Youth Hostel ZürichSwitzerland. All conference rooms are available to us including a nice yard. We have a big main conference hall and three workshop rooms. There is a beer bar in the Foyer of the Youth Hostel.

Zürich Youth Hostel
Mutschellenstrasse 114
8038 Zürich (ZH)

Phone: +41 43 399 78 00
Fax: +41 43 399 78 01


The Youth Hostel Zürich offers accommodation in 4-bed rooms. For a surcharge there are also single and double rooms with bath room ensuite.

Workshop Rooms

We have all four workshop rooms of the Hostel booked for us. All rooms have Wifi and a projector.

Name Usage Seats Comments
Room 1 Main Conference Hall 200 theater setup (no tables), adjacent to yard w/ back entrance
Room 2 Workshop 20 workshop setup (tables), adjacent to yard w/ back entrance
Room 3 Workshop Basement 20 workshop setup (tables), basement w/ side entrance and smoking area
Room 4 Workshop Basement 30 workshop setup (tables), basement w/ side entrance and smoking area
Power Adapters

Swiss mains plug and socket

  • Switzerland uses 230 V / 50 Hz power with Type J sockets / plugs.
  • unearthed Europlugs (Type C) are compatible – other European plugs (such as Schuko) are not as their contacts are thicker than the sockets.
  • The Youth Hostels lends power adapters for many common plug types (for free, just a deposit required which will be given back upon return of the adapter).

Meals will be provided by the Youth Hostel in the venue. They serve different options of Halal / Kosher / vegetarian / vegan food by default. Food is marked in English.

We will be provided with a Coffee Station where fresh coffee can be brewed 24/7 in our conference room, including soft drinks. This is free for our participants.

Travel and Directions

Wikimedia CH will send you a public transport ticket, valid May 8th – 12th for Zürich City Centre and Airport, via e-mail. You just have to print it and bring it. You do not need to buy any public transport tickets unless you are going to do your own tour outside the city or do not arrive / leave from Zürich Airport.

The venue can easily be reached by public transport:

  • Zürich Airport (ZRH) to Zürich Hauptbahnhof (main station)
    1. at the airport any train on platform 3 or 4 (via Zürich HB – Main Station)
    2. after 11 minutes get off at Zürich HB (3rd or 1st stop, depending on train type)
  • Zürich Hauptbahnhof (main station) to Zürich Wollishofen
    1. at Zürich Hauptbahnhof take any train on platform 51 or 52 (to Pfäffikon SZ or Horgen Oberdorf)
    2. after 8 minutes get off at Zürich Wollishofen (3rd stop)
  • Zürich Wollishofen to Youth Hostel
    1. walk 550 m / 9 minutes (map)
    • alternatively take Tram line 7 to Zürich Wollishofen
      1. after 3 minutes get off at Zürich Morgental (2nd stop)
      2. switch to bus line 33 to Zürich Bahnhof Tiefenbrunnen
      3. after 1 minute get off at Zürich Jugendherberge (1st stop)
  • Zürich Hauptbahnhof (main station) to Youth Hostel
    1. take Tram line 13 (towards Albisgütli) from Hauptbahnhof to Waffenplatzstrasse
    2. switch to bus line 33 (towards Morgental) or bus line 66 (towards Neubühl) and get off at Thujastrasse.
    3. walk 1 minute to the hostel.

train ticket are only dependant on the relation, not on the train type – you can take any train (S, Regional, IR, IC, ICN…)

Do not buy local transport tickets from / to the airport to / from the Youth Hostel yet as we plan to provide them to you in advance.


Switzerland belongs to the Schengen Area. You can check on the website of the Federal Office for Migration if you need a visa, which requirements apply and which documents / proofs you must submit to obtain a visa. Wikimedia CH will provide Visa Assistance.

  1. Check the box for visa assistance on the registration form and provide us with some additional personal information.
  2. Please use the forms provided by the Federal Office for Migration to apply for a visa in your country.
  3. Submit the visa and the Invitation Letter issued by Wikimedia CH at the Swiss Embassy in your country. Wikimedia CH will send the Invitation Letter to your Embassy as well to facilitate the process.

If you have any questions or issues with the visa process please contact us. We are in good contact with the Federal Office for Migration in Berne.



Thursday May 8 Youth Hostel
14:00 – Registration at Youth Hostel
optional Meet & Greet / Bar
Friday May 9 Room 1 Room 2 Room 3 Room 4
6:00 – 9:30 Breakfast and Hacking
8:00 – 11:00 Registration and Hacking
11:00 – 11:30 Opening
11:30 – 12:30 Introductions
12:30 – 13:30 Lunch
13:30 – 14:30 Workshops
14:30 – 15:30 Workshops
15:30 – 17:00 Hacking
17:00 – 19:00 Dinner
20:00 – 22:00 Party at Dock18
optional Bar & Music and / or late night hacking
Saturday May 10 Room 1 Room 2 Room 3 Room 4
8:00 – 09:30 Breakfast
9:30 – 10:30 Workshops
11:00 – 12:00 Workshops
12:00 – 12:30 Hacking
12:30 – 13:30 Lunch
13:30 – 17:00 Hacking
17:00 – 21:00 Barbecue
optional late night hacking
Sunday May 11 Room 1 Room 2 Room 3 Room 4
8:00 – 09:30 Breakfast
9:30 – 10:30 Workshops
11:00 – 12:00 Workshops
12:00 – 12:30 Hacking
12:30 – 13:30 Lunch
13:30 – 16:30 Hacking
16:30 – 17:00 Closing
17:24 – 18:35 Lake Cruise



Zürich Hackathon 2014/Workshops


Look for topics you would like to work on or add the topic you are interested in and find more interested people!

+ add a topic



Regular contributors plus some newcomers hack together with a shared goal.

Recommendation engines

A lot of regular users end up reading one article on Wikipedia (through Google Search) and other articles which they need as pre-requisites. It would be interesting to have a recommendation engine for Wikipedia, Wikiquotes and Wikisource.

Interested persons:

  1. Aarti Dwivedi
  2. Maximilianklein
  3. <add yourself>

Production-like Vagrant

Our goal is to make a handful of high-priority puppet roles available to MediaWiki-Vagrant to make developer instances of Vagrant closer to a production-like environment. The ultimate idea is to provide a uniform developer-focussed instance to Mediawiki engineers to facilitate better testing of new and existing code, while also making it easy for new engineers to get started hacking on Mediawiki and Mediawiki with minimal friction for bringing new features to production. The first hurdle will be to provide some crucial production services in MediaWiki-Vagrant, which will be our focus for the Hackathon. Possible services to focus on include

  • Varnish
  • SSL
  • MariaDB
  • Memcache/Redis
  • CentralAuth

For more information, view our notes from initial conversations about this project.

Interested persons:

  1. Arthur Richards
  2. Yuvi Panda
  3. Ori Livneh
  4. Matt Flaschen
  5. Bryan Davis
  6. Andrew Otto
  7. QChris
  8. CSteipp
  9. Tony Thomas
  10. Mglaser
  11. Swidmann
  12. Robert Vogel

Maps integration

The idea is to bring pin map templates, geohack, wikiminiatlas, openstreetmap, Extension:Maps, Special:NearBy, mobile, coordinates extension etc etc etc, more together in a way that works for mobile, desktop, micro and macro contributions. It would be handy if before hand we can do some exploratory work to create a more focused effort during the hackathon: Zürich_Hackathon_2014/Geo_Namespace.

Interested persons:

  1. Jdlrobson
  2. TheDJ
  3. MaxSem
  4. Duesentrieb
  5. Kolossos
  6. Susannaanas
  7. Yug
  8. Aude
  9. TheDJ
  10. Micha L. Rieser Maps can also be generated with the data of the open government data portals and QGIS.

Additional sub-topics

Wikimaps project

There are topics for meetings/sprints with a wider developer/designer/GLAM advocate community with the Wikimaps project.

  • Template:Map for archival metadata, geolocation and temporal properties of maps. For inclusion in the GWToolset.
  • Spatiotemporal properties of places. The structure of a historical gazetteer. (OpenHistoricalMap – Wikidata). Informed by academic research.

Anyone interested? —Susannaanas (talk) 09:43, 10 March 2014 (UTC)


It is possible to get the Maps of the open government data portal under CC0: Maybe it would be a good task to “milk” that map and store the maps in Commons. —Micha 11:18, 2 April 2014 (UTC)


Experts meet novices to share knowledge in hands-on tasks.

Intergration of Open Government Data in Wikidata and other Wikimedia projects

There are a lot of open government data developing with interesting data which can be used for wikimedia projects. For example: The data of polls and referendums, the populations of cities and municipalities, the public art in cities (interesting for Wiki Loves Public Art). How can the data of that portals be transfered automatically to the wikimedia projects. For example generating a script on the tool server which checks daily if some numbers have changed. If yes, it transfers the data to wikidata and from there the data is included in the infoboxes of the Wikipedia articles. Or how can the list of public arts or of other objects (ex. fountains) in wikipedia be updated automatically if there is a new object or an object has been removed.

Interested persons:

  1. Micha L. Rieser
  2. <add yourself>

The RACHEL Project

RACHEL ( is now reaching over one million users worldwide who lack access to reliable internet. The project was a weekend prototype by just a few Cisco employees years ago. Please consider lending your web development, perl skills (, or linux ideas to help us enhance this fantastic product (as seen on BBC, CNN, and much more). Currently, foreign language wikipedia inclusion requires running a second webserver dedicated to wikipedia, an inefficient use of resources in places where these are scarce. Help us integrate foreign language wikipedia without running a second server (

Interested persons:

  1. Jeremy Schwartz <>
  2. <add yourself>

Wikibase architecture overview

An introduction to the Wikibase architecture and components aimed at potential new contributors. Wikibase is the software behind the Wikidata project. In this session you will get a high level overview of the wider wikibase codebase, which functionality can be found where, and how the different parts interact. Novice developers can attend, no special knowledge is required.

Interested persons:

  1. Jeroen De Dauw
  2. Mglaser
  3. Robert Vogel
  4. Maximilianklein

Clean Code

Full title: Clean Code, and other requirements for contributing to Wikibase

This is an introduction to the topic of clean code. It covers basic design principles, effective use of tests, and many general best practices. Want to know how to write code that is easier to maintain? Want to avoid spending so much time in the debugger? Want to write code that reads like well written prose? Want to become more effective at the craft of software development? Then this session is definitely for you.

This introduction is broad and covers a lot of ground. While many topics will not be covered in the depth they deserve, references to other material will be provided. The focus on the most common problem points and practical solutions.

A lot of the topics that will be covered are part of the contribution guidelines for the Wikibase software. Examples from Wikibase will also be used in places, though this session is by no means Wikibase specific.

Interested persons:

  1. Jeroen De Dauw
  2. Mglaser
  3. Swidmann
  4. Robert Vogel

Mobile walk-in and talk-in

Is mobile a mystery to you? Can’t get MobileFrontend setup? Don’t understand why your favourite desktop features don’t work on mobile? Want to know how to work on the latest Wikipedia apps? Do you want to make mobile things and don’t know how? Does one of your projects look great on a desktop and terrible on a mobile device?

This workshop will be an unstructured session where you can ask all these questions and get some answers. Members of the mobile team will be available to answer your questions and give you hands on help on anything you need.

Interested persons:

  1. Robert Vogel
  2. <add yourself>

mediawiki.ui for developers

mw-ui-button mw-ui-constructive mw-ui-quiet mw-ui-lolwtfbbq

mediawiki.ui implements the evolving “Agora” visual style for buttons and forms in MediaWiki software. Learn how to apply it in your extensions and gadgets to deliver attractive consistent appearance. Actual real-life visual designers will be on-hand to give you advice and get feedback about what controls would be useful.

Interested persons:

  1. S Page (WMF)
  2. May Galloway
  3. Shahyar Ghobadpour
  4. Tpt
  5. AalekhN
  6. Peter Coombe
  7. Swidmann
  8. Robert Vogel

Flow for bot and tool developers

Flow is a modern discussion and collaboration system for WMF wikis. However, Flow pages aren’t talk pages, so bots and semi-automated editing tools (e.g., Huggle, Twinkle) will have to adapt to handle them. Come explore the new Flow API and help us make improvements that will support some of the most important processes on our projects!

Interested persons:

  1. S Page (WMF)
  2. Benny Situ
  3. Mlitn
  4. Shahyar Ghobadpour
  5. Maryana (WMF)
  6. Ladsgroup
  7. Duesentrieb
  8. Robert Vogel
  9. Maximilianklein

MediaWiki-Vagrant Bootcamp

Introduction to using MediaWiki-Vagrant to manage a development environment for hacking on MediaWiki. We’ll do a really quick high level look at what Vagrant is and how MediaWiki-Vagrant uses and extends it. Then we’ll learn just enough Puppet to understand what “roles” are and how to use them to configure your MediaWiki-Vagrant instance. Participants will then get hands on by creating roles to install and configure extensions used on Commons that are not yet available in MediaWiki-Vagrant.

Interested persons:

  1. Bryan Davis
  2. Greg Grossmeier
  3. Andrew Otto
  4. Tony Thomas
  5. Swidmann
  6. Robert Vogel

Learn to work with Zuul and Jenkins Job Builder

A tutorial with User:Hashar and User:MarkTraceur about how to add and maintain jobs in Jenkins on the WMF infrastructure.

Interested persons:

  1. QChris
  2. Greg (WMF)
  3. Andrew Otto
  4. Nikerabbit
  5. Seb35
  6. Tony Thomas
  7. Bryan Davis

Tool Labs workshop

An event-long workshop with Coren; hands-on migration, debugging and creation of tools on the Tool Labs. Join in and leave at any time; there will be impromptu and planned breakaway tutorials on various related topics as interest demands (planned: using gridengine tutorial, database query optimization (including federated tables), how to deploy web services).

Interested persons:

  1. Tony Thomas
  2. Swidmann
  3. <add yourself>

OAuth Workshop

Tutorial and opportunity to pair with CSteipp to get your tools/bots using OAuth for authentication and/or authorized access into MediaWiki.

Interested persons:

  1. Waldir (for Primerpedia)
  2. <add yourself>

How to help pywikibot

Pywikibot is the most popular framework for running bots but how we can help improving pywikibot? There are several ways to help including solving and reporting bugs, wrangling bugs, bug triage and areas of developing including support of Wikibase and Wikidata, porting functionality from compat to core, and or network optimization (in order to reduce pressure on WMF servers)

Interested persons:

  1. Ladsgroup
  2. Maximilianklein
  3. <add yourself>

Translate extension workshop

Nikerabbit is there to explain how the Translate extension works. Let’s fix your most wanted (or hated) Translate bugs together or work on new features.

Possible bigger topics to work on, depending on the interest:

  • Repository management. is using a collection of shell scripts to manage all repositories where translations are exported to and imported from. Lack of better repository management is blocking further progress on areas like automation of imports and exports.
  • How will page translation work with Parsoid and VisualEditor.
  • Let’s provide more useful statistics about translation activity in nicer format.
  • Translation memory improvements.

Translate extension provides an translation editor, support for many different types of content, translation memory, statistics ad lots more. It is also very old and big extension, while also adopting new technologies like composer and CSS grid based interface.

Interested persons:

  1. Nikerabbit
  2. Nemo
  3. Siebrand
  4. Duesentrieb
  5. Seb35
  6. Thiemo Mättig (WMDE)
  7. Peter Coombe


Using the content handler facility for managing structured content on wikis. This is aimed mainly at extension developers who want to handle non-textual content on wiki pages.

Interested persons:

  1. Duesentrieb
  2. Nikerabbit (If time permits)
  3. Thiemo Mättig (WMDE)
  4. Swidmann
  5. Robert Vogel
  6. Addshore (talk) 10:30, 2 April 2014 (UTC)

Refactoring Core for Fame and Profit

This session will show how to refactor parts of MediaWiki core in order to improve modularity. The focus will be on backwards compatibility and testability. The TitleValue RFC will serve as an example.

Interested persons:

  1. Duesentrieb
  2. Robert Vogel
  3. <add yourself>


Complex questions are discussed in depth until reaching a decision.

Future of version control, bug reporting and other developer tools

See also Project management tools/Review.

It’s been 2 years since we setup the current infrastructure around developer tools with Gerrit and Jenkins. Not everyone’s happy and things break more often than we like. Additionally there’s been rumblings for years about getting rid of Bugzilla. I think it’s high time we have a discussion about what we envision our ideal development environment to be and figure out what it would take to get us there. Are there any tools (hint hint: Phabricator) that can help get us most of the way there?

Interested persons:

  1. Chad
  2. AKlapper
  3. guillom
  4. S Page (WMF)
  5. QChris
  6. Jdforrester (WMF)
  7. Greg (WMF)
  8. Maryana (WMF)
  9. Duesentrieb
  10. Tony Thomas
  11. Waldir
  12. Bryan Davis
  13. Mglaser
  14. Swidmann

Architecture discussion

A continuation of our past architecture meetings where we discuss the future of MediaWiki’s internal design.

Interested persons:

  1. RobLa-WMF
  2. Jdforrester (WMF)
  3. Hoo man
  4. Nikerabbit (depends on the topics)
  5. Duesentrieb
  6. Aude
  7. Bryan Davis
  8. Mglaser
  9. Robert Vogel
  10. Addshore (talk) 10:30, 2 April 2014 (UTC)

Tech People meeting Regular Users

A workshop (preferably in the early evening) to invite local users, beginners but also power users, who want to learn more about MediaWiki, our infrastructure and more. Kind of a “Ask the Developers” session but more informal.

Invite the local Wikipedia meet-up.

Interested persons:

  1. Manuel Schneider
  2. Hoo man Did similar things before, also am de-n
  3. Jdforrester (WMF)
  4. Duesentrieb
  5. Tony Thomas
  6. Swidmann

OpenPGP/GnuPG key signing party

A OpenPGP/GnuPG key signing party to strengthen the Web of Trust. There is no central key registry for this key signing party. Instead it will simply be a paper slipexchange. Bring

  • paper slips with your key id, fingerprint, name & emails, and
  • something to identify yourself (usually a government-issued identification, such as a passport).

If you need to make paper slips, you can for example use generators, or print copies of the output of gpg --fingerprint $YOUR_KEY_ID

Interested persons:

  1. QChris
  2. Nemo Why not.
  3. Duesentrieb
  4. Mglaser
  5. Swidmann
  6. Robert Vogel

Wikidata in 2020

Let’s talk about the long-term plans and ideas you have for Wikidata.

Interested persons:

  1. Lydia Pintscher (WMDE)
  2. Thiemo Mättig (WMDE)
  3. Mglaser
  4. Maximilianklein
  5. Daniel Mietchen
  6. Addshore (talk) 10:30, 2 April 2014 (UTC)


Proposals that seem to need clarification. Feel free moving them in any of the categories above.

Local Wikipedia forks

“Semi-autonomous instances of localized Wikipedia”. Expand on the work of SOS Children, the Rachel Project to create packaged snapshots of Wikipedia contents that can be deployed on local storage e.g. SD cards in a tablet computer, 3G WiFi router, etc. and on a Raspberry Pi, etc. Ideally there’ll be bi-directional updates from the local instance to Wikipedia and from Wikipedia to the local instance – asynchronous synchronization. People using one of these snapshot instances would be able to create new content and revise existing contents. One of the main goals is to help extend the reach locality and relevance of Wikipedia for people throughout the world.

I’ve been doing some work in this area already and will bring hardware, etc. to demo and test our work.

There’s lots of known-unknowns for this project. With your help I hope we’ll be able to

Interested persons:

  1. Julian Harty
  2. <add yourself>

Possibly interested:

  • Not interested if it’s yet another offline Wikipedia work, but I’d be interested if this was focused on Kiwix/ZIM incremental updates + the ability to edit locally (and then submit changes). —Nemo 14:29, 6 February 2014 (UTC)
  • Except for the “edit feature”, what you mean seems to exist already. At least two Kiwix developers will be there during the 3 days. 09:11, 7 February 2014 (UTC)
  • Only interested in the bi-directionality (i.e. “edit feature”). cf. Distributed Wikipedia. —Waldir (talk) 01:56, 18 March 2014 (UTC)

Extend VisualEditor

VisualEditor has been around for quite a while. As an extension developer, it’s time to think about how you can integrate your extension. There are several topics that we’ll need to talk about:

  • How can my extension make use of / add to the VE?
  • Does my code survive the round trip?
  • How is my extension’s code displayed in the VE?
  • How can I write dialogs that allow the user to easily edit my tags?
  • How can I add functionality to the VE in general?

We as a developer community need to explore the workings of the VE, this session is intended to be a starter.

Interested persons:

  1. Mglaser
  2. Jdforrester (WMF)
  3. Thiemo Mättig (WMDE)
  4. Swidmann
  5. Robert Vogel

Possibly interested:

  1. Tpt

The new face of

There’s an initiative to rework We should discuss the plans and outcomes in order to make a site that is easy to use and valuable to all of us, be it users, site maintainers, core and extension developers and any other intersted parties. Let’s go over the new design and make this a state-of-the-art site a so wide spread software like MediaWiki deserves!

Interested persons:

  1. Mglaser
  2. Waldir
  3. Peter Coombe

Performance guidelines

Let’s get a draft of the performance guidelines nitpicked and approved.

Interested persons:

  1. Sharihareswara (WMF)
  2. <add yourself>


This is an unofficial list where participate can indicate their attendance for the Wikimedia Hackathon 2014 in Zürich.

Note that you must register through the registration page to secure your place at the Hackathon and book your accommodation! (click to register)

+ add yourself

There is space for up to 200 persons.

  1. Oarabile Mudongo (talk) 10:33, 23 December 2013 (UTC)
  2. Yuvipanda (talk) 20:43, 26 November 2013 (UTC)
  3. already stayed at the hostel! if anyone has questions about the venue, I can try to help 🙂 Aude (talk) 23:03, 26 November 2013 (UTC)
  4. Jdlrobson (talk) 00:10, 27 November 2013 (UTC)
  5. Juliusz Gonera (talk) 08:52, 27 November 2013 (UTC)
  6. Kelson (talk)
  7. I’m pretty sure I stayed at this hostel before too. Multichill (talk) 17:17, 5 December 2013 (UTC)
  8. Rgaudin (talk) 19:09, 6 December 2013 (UTC)
  9. OrenBochman (talk) 10:35, 7 December 2013 (UTC)
    DerHexer (talk) 20:17, 10 December 2013 (UTC) Probably.
  10. Daniel Mietchen (talk) 20:54, 10 December 2013 (UTC)
  11. perhaps, if someoneelse works together with me to finalise the OpenID extension —Wikinaut (talk) 01:03, 6 January 2014 (UTC)
  12. Magioladitis (talk) 08:58, 7 January 2014 (UTC)
  13. siebrand (talk) 20:04, 7 January 2014 (UTC)
  14. BDavis (WMF) (talk) 20:42, 7 January 2014 (UTC)
  15. Max Semenik (talk) 17:57, 10 January 2014 (UTC)
  16. Arthur Richards (talk) 20:31, 16 January 2014 (UTC)
  17. MarkTraceur (talk) 23:09, 16 January 2014 (UTC)
  18. Nikerabbit (talk) 07:14, 24 January 2014 (UTC)
  19. Daniel Kinzler (WMDE) (talk) 09:35, 30 January 2014 (UTC)
  20. TheDJ (talk) 14:32, 1 February 2014 (UTC)
  21. Addshore (talk) 22:37, 1 February 2014 (UTC) Probably
  22. KartikMistry (talk) 05:38, 5 February 2014 (UTC) May be
  23. Jeph paul (talk) 19:12, 5 February 2014 (UTC)
  24. Julian Harty (talk), 6 February 2014 (UTC) Probably.
  25. Jeroen De Dauw (talk) 00:29, 7 February 2014 (UTC)
  26. Chad. 00:43, 7 February 2014 (UTC)
    /me is sad Petrb (talk) 10:10, 25 February 2014 (UTC)
  27. Petrb (talk) 08:10, 7 February 2014 (UTC)
  28. Reedy (talk) 18:49, 7 February 2014 (UTC)
  29. Viswaprabha (talk) 22:51, 11 February 2014 (UTC)
  30. Hoo man (talk) 23:58, 11 February 2014 (UTC)
  31. Micha L. Rieser (talk) 13:12, 13 February 2014 (UTC) very probably
  32. Jdforrester (WMF) (talk) 23:07, 13 February 2014 (UTC)
  33. AKlapper (WMF) (talk) 23:21, 13 February 2014 (UTC)
  34. Jaredzimmerman (WMF) (talk) 23:37, 13 February 2014 (UTC)
  35. Greg (WMF) (talk) 23:50, 13 February 2014 (UTC)
  36. MGalloway (WMF) (talk) 21:20, 14 February 2014 (UTC)
  37. RashiqAhmad (talk) 11:46, 18 February 2014 (UTC)
  38. RobLa-WMF (talk) 16:46, 19 February 2014 (UTC) change in plan
  39. Gabriel Wicke (GWicke) (talk) 19:16, 19 February 2014 (UTC)
  40. Mlitn (talk) 22:34, 19 February 2014 (UTC)
  41. Harsh Kothari (talk ) 17:31, 21 February 2014 (UTC) Depends on Scholarship
  42. Aaron (talk) 22:07, 21 February 2014 (UTC)
  43. EdSaperia (talk) 14:15, 22 February 2014 (UTC) woooo yay
  44. Chitetskoy (talk) 06:50, 23 February 2014 (UTC) depends on scholarship
  45. stwalkerster [stwalkerster|talk] 00:03, 24 February 2014 (UTC)
  46. Niharika (talk) 03:04, 24 February 2014 (UTC) Depends on scholarship
  47. Thiemo Mättig (WMDE) (talk) 11:55, 24 February 2014 (UTC)
  48. Rangilo Gujarati (talk) 15:28, 24 February 2014 (UTC) Depends on scholarship.
  49. DarTar (talk) 06:50, 25 February 2014 (UTC)
  50. Lantus (talk) 21:10, 25 February 2014 (UTC)
  51. Aalekh (talk) 23:04, 28 February 2014 (UTC) Depends on scholarship
  52. Frank schubert (talk) 18:45, 28 February 2014 (UTC)
  53. 1Veertje (talk) 14:55, 1 March 2014 (UTC)
  54. So close that I can’t skip. —Nemo 12:11, 2 March 2014 (UTC)
  55. Krinkle Krinkle (talk) 22:06, 4 March 2014 (UTC)
  56. Aarti DwivediRtdwivedi (talk) 03:31, 5 March 2014 (UTC)
  57. Tony Thomas (talk) 14:32, 5 March 2014 (UTC) Depends on scholarship
  58. Tina Johnson (talk) 21:08, 5 March 2014 (UTC) Depends on scholarship
  59. brion (talk)
  60. Tpt (talk) Depends on scholarship
  61. Mglaser (talk) 07:56, 7 March 2014 (UTC)
  62. Sylvain WMFr (talk) 11:29, 7 March 2014 (UTC)
  63. Kolossos 20:44, 7 March 2014 (UTC)
  64. Susannaanas (talk) 08:23, 10 March 2014 (UTC)
  65. André Costa (WMSE) (talk) 10:12, 12 March 2014 (UTC)
  66. Christine Corbett
  67. Seb35 [^_^] Depends on scholarship → thanks!
  68. SPQRobin (talk) 22:30, 14 March 2014 (UTC)
  69. Waldir (talk) 07:21, 15 March 2014 (UTC) Depends on scholarship
  70. Rahul21 (talk) 12:32, 16 March 2014 (UTC) Depends on scholarship
  71. Richa Jain —Rjain (talk) 12:45, 16 March 2014 (UTC) Depends on the scholarship
  72. Peter Coombe (talk) 17:19, 20 March 2014 (UTC)
  73. IAlex (talk) 20:13, 23 March 2014 (UTC)
  74. Ilario (talk) 13:30, 25 March 2014 (UTC)
  75. Nonoxb (talk) 19:39, 25 March 2014 (UTC)
  76. Swidmann (talk) 08:17, 28 March 2014 (UTC)
  77. Osnard (talk) 10:50, 28 March 2014 (UTC)
  78. Maximilianklein (talk) 21:09, 28 March 2014 (UTC)
  79. Dan-nl (talk) 15:21, 29 March 2014 (UTC)
  80. Beat Estermann (talk) 08:54, 1 April 2014 (UTC)

See also



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Human Rights Watch condena abusos, persecución política y censura en Venezuela

¡Que lo sepa el mundo entero! ¡COMPÁRTELO! #Cookednews

(Nueva York).- Miembros de las fuerzas de seguridad venezolanas han empleado fuerza ilegítimamente y cometiendo excesos contra manifestantes en múltiples ocasiones desde el 12 de febrero de 2014, lo cual incluyó golpizas a detenidos y disparar a multitudes que no estaban armadas, señaló hoy Human Rights Watch.

El gobierno ha censurado a medios de noticias al interrumpir la señal de un canal de televisión por cable y amenazar con perseguir penalmente a medios de comunicación privados por informar sobre los sucesos violentos. El Presidente Nicolás Maduro anunció el 20 de febrero que había comenzado el procedimiento para sacar del aire a CNN en Venezuela y según informó un sindicato de trabajadores de la prensa el 21 de febrero, el gobierno ya habría quitado las credenciales a la corresponsal de CNN en Caracas. Periodistas y defensores de derechos humanos denunciaron haber sufrido actos de violencia e intimidación por parte de agentes o partidarios del gobierno.

‘El gobierno venezolano ha adoptado abiertamente las tácticas habituales de los regímenes autoritarios, y ha encarcelado a opositores, censurado medios de comunicación e intimidado a la sociedad civil”, expresó José Miguel Vivanco, director para las Américas de Human Rights Watch.

Al menos 3 manifestantes murieron por heridas de bala y decenas han sufrido heridas desde el 12 de febrero.

El gobierno de Maduro ha señalado a líderes de oposición como responsables de la violencia. Leopoldo López, una de las más prominentes figuras de la oposición, fue arrestado el 18 de febrero de 2014 y la justicia dispuso su prisión preventiva el 20 de febrero. También se libró una orden de captura contra Carlos Vecchio, otro líder del partido político de López, según reportes de prensa. El gobierno aún no ha presentado evidencias creíbles que vinculen estos hombres con la comisión de delitos.

Varios gobiernos de América Latina, incluidos Argentina, Bolivia, Cuba y Ecuador, al igual que aliados internacionales como Siria e Irán, han expresado su apoyo al gobierno de Maduro y repudiado los acontecimientos que el gobierno califica de intentos por desestabilizar al país.

‘Todos aquellos líderes genuinamente interesados en la defensa de los principios democráticos en Venezuela deberían enviar un mensaje claro de que estas prácticas autoritarias son inadmisibles’, comentó Vivanco.

Las conclusiones de Human Rights Watch sobre los acontecimientos recientes en Venezuela se describen con mayor detalle al final de este comunicado de prensa.

Uso excesivo de la fuerza contra manifestantes

Human Rights Watch ha recibido múltiples denuncias serias de defensores locales de derechos humanos que indican que miembros de las fuerzas de seguridad venezolanas, en particular la Guardia Nacional Bolivariana, han golpeado o disparado a manifestantes que no estaban armados desde el 12 de febrero, tanto en Caracas como en otras partes del país.

Un video publicado en Internet por el periódico Últimas Noticias muestra imágenes tomadas en Caracas de policías uniformados y hombres de civil que parecen disparar municiones contra manifestantes que intentan escapar del lugar, entre ellos el joven de 24 años Bassil Da Costa, quien fue captado en el momento preciso en que su cuerpo cae al piso tras sufrir una herida de bala fatal en la cabeza.

El uso de municiones por las fuerzas de seguridad solamente resultaría lícito según el derecho internacional cuando esté dirigido a actores que representen un riesgo inminente para la vida o la integridad de miembros de las fuerzas de seguridad o terceros. Existen grabaciones de video donde se evidencia que manifestantes opuestos al gobierno participan en actos de violencia y vandalismo, como arrojar piedras a policías. Sin embargo, el gobierno no ha mostrado —ni tampoco Human Rights Watch pudo encontrar luego de revisar decenas de videos publicados en línea— imágenes donde se vea a manifestantes opositores que lleven armas de fuego o empleen fuerza letal contra miembros de las fuerzas de seguridad o terceros.

Todas las versiones disponibles de testigos presenciales indican que la gran mayoría de los manifestantes actuaron de manera pacífica, y que quienes cometieron actos de violencia o vandalismo no llevaban armas de fuego ni utilizaron la fuerza letal contra las fuerzas de seguridad ni terceros.

Diversos defensores locales de derechos humanos también denunciaron que muchos manifestantes han sufrido abusos mientras estuvieron detenidos a disposición de las fuerzas de seguridad. El Centro de Derechos Humanos de la Universidad Católica Andrés Bello examinó más de 90 casos de manifestantes detenidos, entrevistando tanto a los detenidos como a sus familiares, y determinó que muchos habían sufrido abuso físico o amenazas de golpizas o violación sexual por parte de miembros de las fuerzas de seguridad. La mayoría permanecieron incomunicados y no fueron llevados ante un juez dentro del plazo de 48 horas exigido por la ley.

Todos los manifestantes que hayan participado en violencia o vandalismo deberían rendir cuentas por sus actos, pero en ningún caso es admisible ni lícito que se dispare a personas que no están armadas o se golpee a quienes han sido detenidos.

La respuesta del gobierno

La respuesta inmediata del gobierno de Maduro a la violencia del 12 de febrero fue señalar como responsables a Leopoldo López y otros líderes de oposición. El Vicepresidente Elías Jaua declaró que López era el ‘autor intelectual’ de los asesinatos, y muy poco después un juez dispuso su detención. El gobierno no ha difundido evidencias creíbles para justificar estos señalamientos.

Según reportes de prensa, López se encuentra en prisión preventiva mientras la fiscalía determina si existen pruebas suficientes para acusarlo por diversos delitos, incluido el de ‘instigación a delinquir’ y el de ‘asociación’. La Ley Orgánica contra la Delincuencia Organizada y Financiamiento al Terrorismo define de manera muy poco precisa al delito de ‘asociación’ como ‘formar’ parte de un grupo de delincuencia organizada’, y prevé para este una pena de hasta 10 años de prisión.

También Vecchio está siendo investigado por su presunta responsabilidad en estos delitos, conforme se indicó en los medios. El 20 de febrero, según la prensa, grupos afines al gobierno pidieron a la Asamblea Nacional que levantara la inmunidad parlamentaria de María Corina Machado, una integrante de ese órgano legislativo que mantiene una postura abiertamente crítica frente al gobierno.

El 16 de febrero, después de que Últimas Noticias publicara el video de los disparos contra manifestantes, el Presidente Maduro declaró en cadena nacional que miembros de la policía de inteligencia (Servicio Bolivariano de Inteligencia Nacional, Sebin) que se ven en el video no habían respetado su instrucción de acuartelarse el día en que ocurrieron los disparos. El 17 de febrero, según reportes de prensa, un miembro de la policía de inteligencia fue detenido por participar en los eventos del 12 de febrero y el gobierno destituyó al director de esta fuerza. El gobierno no ha indicado que miembros de la policía de inteligencia u otras fuerzas de seguridad estén siendo investigados por abusos contra civiles.

El 18 de febrero, según trascendió en los medios, la Fiscalía General de la República identificó a Jonathan Rodríguez como uno de los hombres no uniformados en el video de Últimas Noticias e indicó que era sospechoso en dos de las muertes por disparos ocurridas el 12 de febrero. En ese momento, las autoridades aún no habían determinado si era miembro de las fuerzas de seguridad del Estado.

En el video, ninguno de los policías uniformados o guardias nacionales que aparecen en la vía pública próximos a Rodríguez intentó detenerlo cuando disparó su arma, ni impedir que se retire luego de haber disparado.

Grupos de civiles armados afines al gobierno

La organización local de derechos humanos Programa Venezolano de Educación-Acción en Derechos Humanos (Provea) ha documentado evidencias de que el gobierno de Venezuela ha tolerado y estimulado la presencia de grupos de civiles armados en el país. Estos grupos han intimidado a manifestantes y promovido incidentes violentos durante manifestaciones en distintas regiones del país desde el 12 de febrero, según indica la organización de derechos humanos.

El Presidente Maduro expresó el 15 de febrero que no ‘acept[a] grupos violentos en el campo del chavismo y la Revolución‘ y que solamente las Fuerzas Armadas deberían portar armas de fuego. A pesar de que estos grupos armados de civiles han operado abiertamente durante años, el gobierno no ha adoptado medidas efectivas para desarmarlos.

Según diversos medios, el 18 de febrero ocho manifestantes recibieron disparos, una de ellos con consecuencias fatales, cuando un grupo de hombres vestidos de civil que se trasladaban en motocicletas abrieron fuego contra una manifestación en Valencia.

Defensores de derechos humanos

También diversos defensores de derechos humanos venezolanos han informado actos de intimidación y violencia. Inti Rodríguez, coordinador de medios de Provea, dijo a Human Rights Watch que en la noche del 12 de febrero, cuando salía de su oficina, fue secuestrado por aproximadamente 20 hombres vestidos de negro que tenían el rostro cubierto. Según indicó, fue trasladado en una motocicleta sin placas hasta una zona de Caracas que presuntamente es controlada por grupos armados afines al gobierno. Rodríguez dijo que los hombres lo retuvieron durante dos horas, lo golpearon, amenazaron con matarlo y lo interrogaron acerca del trabajo de derechos humanos que lleva a cabo en Provea. Señaló que los hombres no se identificaron en ningún momento, pero Rodríguez notó que el líder del grupo empleaba lenguaje policial y escuchó conversaciones que sugerían que los hombres estaban en contacto con fuerzas de seguridad.

El 13 de febrero, el Ministro del Interior y Justicia Manuel Rodríguez Torres acusó a Humberto Prado, director del Observatorio Venezolano de Prisiones, una organización no gubernamental local que monitorea las condiciones penitenciarias en el país, de organizar un plan para ‘generar ingobernabilidad en todas las cárceles del país y potenciar la matriz de violencia…’. El Ministro Rodríguez Torres afirmó que los sucesos violentos del 12 de febrero fueron el resultado de planes orquestados durante 2012 por Prado y ‘bandas fascistas’ con el propósito de ‘llevar a Venezuela a una guerra civil’.

No es la primera vez que funcionarios gubernamentales procuran desacreditar a Prado acusándolo de intentar socavar la democracia venezolana. Luego de que Prado criticara en junio de 2011 la actuación del gobierno durante un motín en una prisión venezolana, el entonces ministro de justicia lo acusó de intentar ‘desestabilizar el sistema penitenciario’ y el vicepresidente en ese momento afirmó que la crítica era parte de una estrategia para ‘desestabilizar el país’.

Ataques contra periodistas

Diversos periodistas que informaron sobre las protestas y los hechos de violencia relacionados han señalado haber sido detenidos y agredidos físicamente por miembros de fuerzas de seguridad y manifestantes afines al gobierno desde el 12 de febrero. Espacio Público, una organización no gubernamental que monitorea la libertad de prensa en Venezuela, ha documentado 17 casos de periodistas que fueron detenidos, agredidos o ambos entre el 12 y el 16 de febrero. Entre estos se incluyen:

  • Rafael Hernández, fotógrafo de la revista Exceso, quien señaló haber sido detenido por miembros del Cuerpo de Investigaciones Científicas Penales y Criminalísticas (CICPC) el 12 de febrero, luego de tomar una fotografía de un policía mientras golpeaba a una mujer. Hernández fue retenido durante nueve horas y golpeado en varias oportunidades por agentes del CICPC, informó Espacio Público. Su cámara fue confiscada por la policía.
  • Juan Pablo Bieri, periodista colombiano del canal de noticias Red Más Noticias informó haber sido detenido por la Guardia Nacional el 16 de febrero y retenido durante una hora dentro de un vehículo militar, donde fue interrogado y golpeado.
  • Mariana Cadenas, reportera de la agencia internacional de noticias Agence France-Press, indicó a Human Rights Watch que el 12 de febrero un hombre con vestimenta roja le quitó su cámara, en la cual había registrado imágenes de manifestantes mientras eran detenidos y golpeados. El hombre, y otras 10 personas que lo acompañaban, gritaron a la periodista calificativos como ‘fascista’ y ‘golpista’. Dijo que aproximadamente 40 miembros de la Guardia Nacional que se encontraban a unos 30 metros de distancia presenciaron el incidente pero no intervinieron. Cuando les pidió ayuda, uno de ellos se negó, y otro dijo: ‘¿Ustedes no sabían a lo que se iban a enfrentar?’.

Censura de medios de noticias

El 11 de febrero, William Castillo, director de CONATEL, el órgano del Estado que regula a los medios de transmisión, advirtió a los medios de comunicación que la cobertura de incidentes violentos podía importar una violación de la Ley de Responsabilidad Social. Castillo hizo referencia al artículo 27 de la ley, que fue sancionada por la Asamblea Nacional chavista en 2004 y luego reformada en 2010. El artículo otorga al gobierno amplias facultades para sancionar a medios privados que difundan contenidos que, a criterio del gobierno, ‘fomenten zozobra en la ciudadanía o alteren el orden público’, ‘desconozcan a las autoridades legítimamente constituidas’ o ‘inciten o promuevan el odio y la intolerancia por razones religiosas [o] políticas’.

El 12 de febrero, el gobierno dispuso que los proveedores de televisión por cable del país dejaran de transmitir el canal internacional de noticias NTN 24. El Presidente Maduro indicó al día siguiente que la orden había sido una ‘decisión de estado’ en respuesta a la difusión de las protestas por el canal, por considerar que procuró ‘transmitir la zozobra de un intento de golpe’.

El 13 de febrero, el Presidente Maduro dio instrucciones a su Ministra de Comunicaciones e Información Delcy Rodríguez para que ‘tomar[a] medidas’ contra corresponsales de Agence France-Press por haber ‘distorsionado la verdad de los acontecimientos ocurridos el miércoles 12 de febrero’.

El 15 de febrero, el gobierno venezolano limitó la posibilidad de que los usuarios de Twitter obtuvieran imágenes, conforme señaló un representante de Twitter, Inc. a Bloomberg News.

El 16 de febrero, la Ministra Rodríguez señaló que en la prensa nacional e internacional se habían publicado ‘fotografías manipuladas’ en el marco de la cobertura de la violencia, que esto constituía un delito y que el gobierno ‘tomará acciones judiciales’. Los ejemplos que ofreció incluían el uso de una fotografía de Egipto en un blog del periódico español ABC y el uso de una fotografía de 2010 en un mensaje de Twitter del periódico venezolano Tal Cual para representar los acontecimientos actuales en Venezuela. La ministra también se refirió al uso en el periódico argentino Clarín y el periódico chileno El Mercurio de una imagen de dos policías venezolanos frente a un automóvil en llamas, la cual reconoció que había sido tomada durante las actuales protestas pero, según afirmó, generaban una falsa impresión con respecto a la actuación de los agentes.

El 20 de febrero, el Presidente Maduro anunció que su gobierno había iniciado un proceso administrativo para terminar con la transmisión del canal internacional CNN en Venezuela por la cobertura que realizó de las protestas y la violencia. El 21 de febrero, un sindicato de trabajadores de la prensa reportó que el gobierno había cancelado las credenciales de la corresponsal de CNN en Caracas.


Barack Obama rieletto presidente: ‘Il meglio deve ancora venire’ il discorso integrale

(Il presidente Usa Barack Obama festeggia la rielezione alla Casa Bianca con la moglie Michelle e le figlie Malia (davanti in gonna blu) e Sasha (dietro in gonna verde) sul palco del suo quartier generale a Chicago davanti ai suoi sostenitori)

Barack Obama è stato rieletto per un secondo storico mandato alla Casa Bianca. Con i 9 grandi elettori del Colorado e i 13 della Virginia, il presidente si sarebbe aggiudicato almeno 285 grandi elettori, contro i 203 dello sfidante repubblicano Mitt Romney: ne servivano 270 per la vittoria.

Secondo le proiezioni tv, il presidente ha vinto con stretto margine in Ohio, Wisconsin, Iowa, Pennsylvania e New Hampshire, mentre l’unico stato indeciso conquistato da Romney è stato il North Carolina.

Mitt Romney ha riconosciuto la vittoria di Obama con una telefonata: ‘Questo è tempo di grandi sfide per l’America e prego che il presidente abbia successo nella guida del Paese‘ ha detto ai suoi sostenitori riuniti al quartier generale di Boston. ‘Ora repubblicani e democratici lavorino insieme’ ha proseguito. ‘Auguro al presidente, alla first lady e alle loro figlie ogni bene, questi sono tempi molto difficili per la nostra grande Nazione.

Il presidente ha invece subito ringraziato su Twitter i suoi sostenitori: ‘Voi lo avete reso possibile. Grazie’, ha scritto rilanciando quello che era stato uno degli slogan della campagna elettorale ‘Altri 4 anni’, e `postando´ una foto in cui abbraccia la first lady Michelle. Poi, in abito blu e cravatta blu elettrico, il presidente è salito sul palco, accompagnato da Michelle e le figlie Malia e Sasha. ‘Ringrazio gli americani uno per uno. Io e Romney abbiamo a cuore l’America’ ha detto. ‘Per l’America il meglio deve ancora venire e grazie a voi la sua storia va avanti’.

Poi, in un lungo discorso, si è rivolto all’America. ‘Torno alla Casa Bianca più determinato. La nostra economia si sta riprendendo’.

Immediata è esplosa la gioia a Chicago, al quartier generale dei democratici, mentre lo sconforto si è impadronito della sede di Romney a Boston. Una folla di cinque, seimila persone, si è riunita davanti alla Casa Bianca cantando ‘altri quattro anni’ e ‘Usa, Usa’.

Il flusso di americani in festa non si ferma nel cuore di Washington. I caroselli di auto con il clacson pigiato si fanno sentire da un isolato di distanza. Urla di gioia esplodono dai gruppi di ragazzi arrampicati sugli alberi proprio davanti ai cancelli della Casa Bianca e si alternano alle grida dei fan.

Sono tantissimi gli studenti che accorrono letteralmente senza fiato dalla vicina George Washington University, ma ci sono anche i lobbysti, gli attivisti, e la gente comune. E ci sono gli stranieri.

Al Congresso Usa intanto si conferma la stessa situazione di prima del voto di oggi: i democratici mantengono il controllo del Senato e i repubblicani quello della Camera.

Oggi si votava in alcuni Stati anche per numerosi referendum: via libera alle nozze gay in Maine, alla legalizzazione della marijuana in Colorado e nello Stato di Washington, mentre la Florida mantiene il finanziamento pubblico per l’aborto. E in California è stata riconfermata la pena di morte con una votazione superiore al 54% e che ha bocciato la proposta di abolizione. Il presidente rieletto dovrà avere a che fare anche con questo.

Romney ha ritardato la sua ammissione di sconfitta perché i Repubblicani avevano inizialmente messo in dubbio la vittoria di Obama in Ohio, malgrado tutti gli esperti e le reti tv lo avessero già dichiarato presidente.

Obama dovrà affrontare la difficile sfida di gestire i mille miliardi di dollari di deficit annuale, la riduzione del debito nazionale da 16mila miliardi di dollari, revisionare i costosi programmi sociali e gestire un Congresso in stallo.

Su Twitter: #congratulationsObama#RomneyCasa BiancaCNNBarack ObamaMr PresidentOhio#USA2012#vaiObama

E’ morto Rodney King, il simbolo della rivolta afro

Il simbolo della rivolta nera Rodney King, il camionista picchiato a sangue dalla polizia di Los Angeles, dopo essere stato fermato per eccesso di velocità, segnando l’inizio del riot in tutta l’America della West Coast, è stato trovato privo di vita la notte scorsa, in una piscina di Rialto, in California.

King, l’uomo da cui iniziò la rivoluzione degli anni ’90 nella City of Angels, aveva 47 anni.

‘Le prime indicazioni parlano di annegamento senza alcun segno di colluttazione’, spiega la polizia in un comunicato. King è stato trovato dalla fidanzata – ha detto il capitano della polizia Randy De Anda. L’ufficio del coroner della contea di San Bernardino ha disposto l’autopsia. Il decesso di Rodney King è stato segnalato alle forze dell’ordine domenica mattina a Rialto, a circa 50 miglia a est di Los Angeles. La polizia ha tirato il suo corpo dalla piscina, senza riuscire a rianimarlo, ha detto De Anda.

Rodney King fu violentemente pestato da quattro agenti di polizia, inconsapevoli che da un balcone qualcuno stava riprendendo. I quattro al processo furono assolti, e la sentenza fu il fischio d’inizio della rivolta dei neri a Los Angeles, che nel 1992 fece 53 morti. E king divenne, involontariamente, simbolo delle tensioni razziali negli Stati Uniti. Il suo pestaggio nel 1991 per mano della polizia, ha scatenato  gli scontri mortali a Los Angeles un anno dopo. 

King divenne noto in tutto il mondo dopo che lui e alcuni amici sono stati fermati dalla polizia di Los Angeles il 3 marzo 1991, a seguito di un inseguimento ad alta velocità. King è stato picchiato da agenti armati di bastone, mentre un testimone stava videoregistrando il pestaggio. Il video ha generato un dibattito nazionale sulla brutalità della polizia e  le relazioni razziali.

Quando gli ufficiali furono assolti dall’accusa di brutalità un anno dopo, scoppiarono delle rivolte a Los Angeles, che provocarono 53 morti e danni per circa 1 miliardo.

Durante i disordini, King fece un famoso appello televisivo per tornare alla calma, dicendo: ‘Possiamo andare d’accordo tutti’.

Due degli agenti sono stati successivamente condannati con l’accusa di aver violato i diritti civili di King e costretti al carcere.

Una giuria ha ordinato alla città di Los Angeles di pagare King, disoccupato al momento del pestaggio, con un compenso di $ 3,8 milioni per i danni subiti.

King aveva una storia di abuso di sostanze e precedentemente era apparso sulla tv via cavo degli Stati Uniti, in un programma intitolato ‘Celebrity Rehab‘.

Quest’anno, due decenni dopo gli scontri, Rodney King ha scritto un libro intitolato ‘The Riot Within: My Journey from Rebellion to Redemption

King, che ha tre figli, era fidanzato con Cynthia Kelley, giurato nel processo civile contro la città di Los Angeles, secondo la biografia che accompagna il suo libro.

Il Los Angeles Times ha pubblicato una citazione che King ha rilasciato al giornale all’inizio di quest’anno: ‘Vorrei cambiare alcune cose, ma non troppe. Si, mi piacerebbe tornare indietro a quella notte, e vorrei pensare che no, non ha cambiato le cose, ma non è vero. Le ha cambiate e come. Ha reso il mondo un posto migliore ‘.

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